Tuesday, March 1, 2011

Harbour/xharbour Diff (2/57) -NEW LANGUAGE STATEMENTS by Przemyslaw Czerpak

Harbour support all xHarbour functionality and it offers also additional
   features which are not available in xHarbour.
   a) it allows to iterate more then one variable
         FOR EACH a, b, c IN aVal, cVal, hVal
            ? a, b, c
   b) it allows to set descending order by DESCEND flag, f.e.:
         FOR EACH a, v IN aVal, cVal DESCEND
            ? a, b
   c) it has native support for hashes:
         FOR EACH x IN { "ABC" => 123, "ASD" => 456, "ZXC" => 789 }
            ? x, "@", x:__enumKey()
   d) it allows to assign string items, f.e.:
         s := "abcdefghijk"
         FOR EACH c IN @s
            IF c $ "aei"
               c := UPPER( c )
         ? s      // AbcdEfghIjk
   e) it gives OOP interface to control enumerator variables what
      is very important when more then one variable is iterated or
      when FOR EACH is called recursively, f.e.:
         hVal := { "ABC" => 123, "ASD" => 456, "ZXC" => 789 }
         FOR EACH x IN hVal
            ? x:__enumIndex(), ":", x:__enumKey(), "=>", x:__enumValue(), ;
              "=>", x:__enumBase()[ x:__enumKey() ]
   f) it gives very flexible OOP mechanism to overload FOR EACH behavior
      for user define objects adding to above enumerator methods also
      __enumStart(), __enumStop(), __enumSkip() methods what allows to
      implement many different enumeration algorithms depending on used
   g) it does not have any hardcoded limitations for recursive calls
      (it's limited only by available memory and HVM stack size), f.e.:
         proc main()
            p( 0 )
         proc p( n )
            local s := "a", x
            ? n
            if n < 1000
               for each x in s
                  p( n + 1 )
   In xHarbour there is function HB_ENUMINDEX() which is supported by
   Harbour in XHB library.

   In Harbour it does not have any hardcoded limitations for recursive
   calls (it's limited only by available memory and HVM stack size), f.e.:
      proc main()
         p( 0 )
      proc p( n )
         ? n
         if n < 1000
            with object n
               p( n + 1 )
   It also uses OOP interface just like FOR EACH, so it's possible to
   use :__withObject() to access / assign current WITH OBJECT value.
   In xHarbour there are functions HB_QWITH(), HB_WITHOBJECTCOUNTER()
   and HB_RESETWITH() which are supported by Harbour in XHB library.

   In Harbour it uses jump table with predefined values what gives
   significant speed improvement in comparison to sequential PCODE
   evaluation just like in DO CASE statements.
   In xHarbour SWITCH does not use such jump table and generated
   PCODE is similar to the one used for DO CASE or IF / ELSEIF
   and only the main switch value calculation is optimized and
   reused for all statements so speed improvement is relatively
   In xHarbour instead of OTHERWISE the DEFAULT clause is used.
   As SWITCH values Harbour supports integer numbers and strings, f.e.:
      switch x
         case 1         ; [...]
         case 10002     ; [...]
         case "data"    ; [...]
         otherwise      ; [...]
   xHarbour supports only integer numbers and one character length strings
   like "A", "!", "x", " ", ...

   [ RECOVER [ USING  ] ]
   [ ALWAYS ]

   It's unique to Harbour. In xHarbour limited version of above statement
   exists as:
      [ CATCH [] ]
      [ FINALLY ]
   TRY gives exactly the same functionality as:
      BEGIN SEQUENCE WITH { |e| break(e) }

With the exception to SWITCH implementation, in all other statements
described above, xHarbour causes performance reduction in PCODE evaluation
even if user does not use them at all. In Harbour they are implemented in
different way which does not cause any overhead and slowness for other code. 
More at http://harbour-project.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/harbour-project/trunk/harbour/doc/xhb-diff.txt

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Welcome to Clipper... Clipper... Clipper

In 1997, then using Delphi 3, I had already created 32-bits Windows applications for HRIS, ERP and CRM. In 2007, using Ruby on Rails, an AJAX powered CRM site running on Apache & MySQL was created and I am now using Visual Studio .Net 2008 to create web-based projects and Delphi 7 for Win32 applications using SQL2005 & DBFCDX.

So, why then am I reviving the Original Clipper... Clipper... Clipper via a Blog as CA-Clipper is a programming language for the DOS world ? Believe it or not, there are still some clients using my mission-critical CA-Clipper applications for DOS installed in the late 80's and up to the mid 90's. This is testimony to CA-Clipper's robustness as a language :-)

With the widespread introduction of Windows 7 64-bits as the standard O/S for new Windows based PCs & Notebooks, CA-Clipper EXE simply will not work and it has become imperative for Clipper programmers to migrate immediately to Harbour to build 32/64 bits EXEs

Since 28th January 2009, this blog has been read by 134,389 (10/3/11 - 39,277) unique visitors (of which 45,151 (10/3/11 - 13,929) are returning visitors) from 103 countries and 1,574 cities & towns in Europe (37; 764 cities), North America (3; 373 cities) , Central America & Caribeans (6; 13 cities), South America(10; 226 cities), Africa & Middle-East (12; 44 cities) , Asia-Pacific (21; 175 cities). So, obviously Clipper is Alive & Well : -)

TIA & Enjoy ! (10th October 2012, 11:05; 13th November 2015)

Original Welcome Page for Clipper... Clipper... Clipper

This is the original Welcome Page for Clipper... Clipper... Clipper, which I am republishing for historical and sentimental reasons. The only changes that I have made was to fix all the broken links. BTW, the counter from counter.digits.com is still working :-)

Welcome to Chee Chong Hwa's Malaysian WWW web site which is dedicated to Clipperheads throughout the world.

This site started out as a teeny-weeny section of Who the heck is Chee Chong Hwa ? and has graduated into a full blown web site of more than 140 pages (actually hundreds of A4 size pages) ! This is due to its growing popularity and tremendous encouragements from visiting Clipperheads from 100 countries worldwide, from North America, Central America, Caribbean, South America, Europe, Middle-East, Africa and Asia-Pacific. Thanx Clipperheads, you all made this happen !

What is Clipper ?

You may ask, what is this Clipper stuff ? Could Clipper be something to do with sailing as it is the name of a very fast sailing American ship in the 19th century ?

Well, Clipper or to be precise, CA-Clipper is the premier PC-Software development tool for DOS. It was first developed by Nantucket Corporation initially as a compiler for dBase3+ programs. Since then, CA-Clipper has evolved away from its x-base roots with the introduction of lexical scoping & pre-defined objects like TBrowse. As at today, the most stable version ofClipper is 5.2e while the latest version, 5.3a was introduced on 21 May 1996.

As at 11th November, 1996, an unofficial 5.3a fixes file was made available by Jo French. See the About CA-Clipper 5.3a section for more details. BTW, Jo French uploaded the revised 5.3a fixes file on 20th November, 1996.

Latest News

The latest news is that CA has finally released the long-awaited 5.3b patch on 21 May, 1997.

For 5.3b users, you must a take a look at Jo French's comments on unfixed bugs in 5.3b.

BTW, have you used Click ? If you're a serious Clipperprogrammer and need an excellent code formatter, Click is a natural choice. How to get it ? Simple, access Phil Barnett's site via my Cool Clipper Sites.

32-bits Clipper for Windows ?

Have you tried Xbase ++ ? Well, I have and compared to Delphi (my current Windows programming tool of choice), I'm still sticking to Delphi.

Anyway, you should visit the Alaska Home Page. Give it a chance and then draw your own conclusions !.

The Harbour Project

Is this the future of Xbase ? Take a look at at the Harbour Project

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